STEM-AR Based Ecology and Biodiversity E-book Development for Increasing Students' Scientific Reasoning

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This research aims to developing STEM-AR-based e-book teaching materials to

improve students' scientific reasoning in ecology and biodiversity materials. The

development of this research is important as a parameter of 21st-century abilities, which

require students to have 4C abilities to face the education era of 4.0. This research method

uses Research and Development (R&D). The R&D design chosen was Thiagarajan design

consisting of four stages (Define, Design, Develop, and Disseminate) (Thiagarajan, 1974).

Class VII students (N = 42) were involved as research subjects who were taken by the

purposive sampling technique. Data collection was carried out through scientific reasoning

tests, student response questionnaires, and observation sheets. Data processing techniques

used paired sample T-tests and then performed the N-gain test. The results of the analysis

show that after using the STEM-AR-based e-book, there is an increase in scientific reasoning

ability, with an N-Gain value of 63% in the medium category. Testing the effectiveness of

teaching materials using the SPSS paired sample t-test showed a result of 0.001, which means

that STEM-AR-based teaching materials affect students' scientific reasoning. The descriptive

average of scientific reasoning has increased by 40%. In addition, students gave positive

responses to teaching materials, which made it easier to understand the material.